THE STRUGGLE FOR A PERMANENT SEAT AT THE SECURITY COUNCIL: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTESTANTS IN 2012

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THE STRUGGLE FOR A PERMANENT SEAT AT THE SECURITY COUNCIL: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTESTANTS IN 2012

ABSTRACT

This work set out to investigate the struggle for Permanent Seats At The Security Council: A Critical Assessment of the Contestants in 2012. While observing that there exists a fundamental need to reform and enlarge both the membership and voting pattern in the Security Council in order to reflect geopolitical realities of the 21st Century by making both the organisation and the Security Council in particular to appear democratic while at the same time enhancing its efficiency and legitimacy around the world. It is noted that while all member states of the organisation accept this need and exigency, they however, differed on the modalities, nature and extent of the reform. Moreover, each of the major contestants though enjoys the support of one or the other of the members of the P5, but they at the same time faces opposition from major powers in their respective regions; thereby making the struggle a serious and arduous task. We however, in this study vehemently believe that the structure and composition of the United Nations Security Council must definitely be reformed and reorganized to reflect the wide and varied membership of the organisation. The theory of national interest was used as our framework for analysing the quest and struggles for permanent seat in the Security Council. Data for the study was gathered through observation of the secondary sources like books, journals, Internet, official documents et cetera. Our method of data analysis which involved giving a qualitative description to quantitative information brings simplicity and coherence to our work. Our recommendations were also anchored on the findings of our research work which was clearly articulated in our conclusion.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
List of Abbreviation – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 4
1.3. Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.4. Significance of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.5. Literature Review – – – – – – 8
1.6. Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 23
1.7. Hypotheses – – – – – – 29
1.8. Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 29
1.9. Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 30
1.10 Operational Definition – – – – – 31

CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND TO THE PERMANENT SEAT QUESTION

2.1 The Intergovernmental Relationship System before 1914 – – – 32
2.2 The United Nations Security Council – – – – – 41
2.2.1 Formation and Composition of the UN Security Council – – – 41
2.2.2 Functions of the United Nations Security Council – – 44
2.3 Permanent Members of the Security Council and their Privileges – 45
2.4 Non-Permanent Members of the Security Council – – 46
2.5 Efficiency and Effectiveness of the UN Security Council – – – 50
2.6 Historical Development of the United Nations Reforms – – 51
2.7 Criticisms against the Structure and Functions of the United
Nations Security Council- – – – – – – 52
2.8 United Nations Charter Provisions and their Development – – 54

CHAPTER THREE: STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES IN THE ENLARGEMENT ADVOCACY

3.1 The G4 Position and the Reform of the United Nations Security Council – – – – – – – – 58
3.2 United Nations Security Council Reform and Japan’s Quest For Permanent Seat under the Aegis of the G4– 59
3.3 United Nations Security Council Reform and India’s Quest for Permanent Seat- – – – – – – – 62
3.4 Germany’s and The Quest for Permanent Seat at the UNSC – – 69
3.5 United Nations Reform and Brazil’s Quest for Permanent Seat – 72
3.6 Oppositions to the Permanent Seat Bid Quest of the G4 Nations – 75
3.7 The African Group and United Nations Security Council Reform – – 76
3.8 South Africa and the Quest for African Permanent Seat in the UNSC – 79
3.9 Egypt and Quest for African Permanent Seat in the Enlarged UNSC – 83
3.10 Nigeria and Quest for Africa Permanent Seat in the Enlarged UNSC – 87

CHAPTER FOUR: LIKELY OUTCOMES OF THE STRUGGLE FOR THE ENLARGEMENT OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL

4.1 Need for the Enlargement of the UN Security Council- – – 93
4.2 UNSC – An Exclusive Club or Representative Organ? – – – 94
4.3 The Expansion of the United Nations from 1946-1960s – – 96
4.4 The Expansion of the Non-Permanent Members In The Security Council – – – – – – – – – 97
4.5 The Expansion of the United Nation Member States after 1965- – 100
4.6 Impulse for Reform of the Security Council In The 1990’s – – 101
4.7 UNSC Enlargement and the Issue of Equitable Representation – 103
4.8 Position from Member States and Formal Groups in Cluster I on the UNSC Enlargement Struggle 106
4.8.1 The Quick Fix Formula and the G4 – – – – – 106
4.8.2 The Non-Aligned Movement – – – – – 108
4.8.3 Model A and Model B from the High Level Panel on Threats,
Challenges and Change – – – – – – 109
4.8.4 Uniting For Consensus – – – – – – 112
4.9 Achievements in Cluster II – – – – – – 112
4.10 Attitude of the P-5 towards Expansion of the Permanent Seats – – 114
4.11 Should the Veto Right be extended to New Permanent Members – 116
4.12 Controversy over the Reform and Enlargement of the Security
Council – – – – – – – 117

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND COMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 123
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 125
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 129
Bibliography – – – – – – – – 131

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