The Effect Of Periodic Testing On Students Achievement In Business Studies: A Case of Study Junior Secondary School
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The National Policy on Education (1981) clearly emphasize that
“Education assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole or two part in continuous assessment of the progress of the individual”
The Nigeria educational system have been gravely tied to the western education, especially in the area of curriculum, as a result of which has dictated our method and system of evaluating students achievement and performance.
The need for a curriculum that will reflect the country’s need and aspiration necessitated the new Policy on Education Issued in (1977).
Education has been recognized all over the world a sure means to the achievement of more rapid transportation in any society. As a matter of fact the National Policy on Education in Nigeria attached great importance to the development of science and technology as a means of last narrowing the yearning technological differences now separating the developing nations of the world. These objective can only be achieved through an effective science and social management. Supporting this view many educationist like Fafunwa (2004) and Ikejiani (2003) pointed out the obvious gap between the system output and the manpower demand by the nation. According to Adaralegbe (2005) the high demand rate has been observed to be based on the recognition by Nigeria that education, is the great for man’s economic progress and for his political survival.
It was unanimously expressed at the (1967) National Curriculum Conference held in Lagos that the curriculum hitherto used in secondary school, system was inadequate to meet up with a rapid technological changing world. Oyedeji (2005) define education as the aggregate of all the process by which a child or young adult develops the ability, attitude and other forms of behaviour which are positive value of the society in which he lives.
The secondary level of the New National Policy on Education has recently changed the fundamental structure of the secondary education, It has introduced new element into its curriculum for example there has been air introduction evaluation in that the instrument used by appropriate for the purpose of vocational course a deliberate shift in emphasis from literary to science oriented education, a method and introduction of continuous assessment. As a result of this Yoloye (2002) and Bajah (2001) reported that government has directed that continuous assessment should be used at all level of education for the evaluation of students.
In schools the teacher usually carries out assessment of learning for the basis of impression gained as their observed their pupils at work by various kind of that test given periodically.
Business study in particular is one of the pre-vocational subjects in the junior secondary school. It is offered as a unified or integrated subject comprises of office practice, commerce, book-keeping and account, shorthand and typewriting in order to offer an opportunity for gainful employment even without future studies alter’ the Junior Secondary School Course. The curriculum has been designed by tile Fanner Comparative Education Studies and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) to meet the requirement of the students in the new system. As it is been one of the key subject in school curriculum.
Business study and inter related are comprehensive in nature. It is a skilled course, which demand practical and integrated teaching techniques, its nature, the course is vocational at die (JSS) level, it is view as pre- vocational to initiate students into business operation and the community around them. This is why it is important for teacher to relate the subject to what students already understand as business from home. In doing this, it gives student the opportunity to appreciate and become aware of the economics and business system of their immediate environment and that of others as well as this enable them to understand the interdependent between society and nations. This will help students cultivate a good sense of development of business inter-relation to law sociology and politics.
In recognition of this the curriculum developer have tried to reflect the philosophy and objectives of the business studies as follows:
1- To enable the student to acquire the basic knowledge of business studies
2- To provide orientation and skill with which to start a life work for
those who may not undergo further training.
3- To relate the knowledge and skill to the national economy
4- To develop the basic skill in office occupation
5- To prepare students for further training in business studies.
6- To provide basic skills for personal use in future.
Douglas et al (1998:34) summarized the objectives of business
education as follows:
- To prepare students to enter and succeed in business education
- To assist in developing occupational.
- To develop in a practical way and understanding and appreciate way of the functioning our economic system.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A business study is a novel subject in our school curriculum especially with the introduction of new method 6-3-3-4 system of educational system. As present the evaluation of student achievement in business studies in Ogun State is a combine effort of the class teacher and the ministry of education, which set certificate examination test items.
This studies attempted to assess the effect of periodic testing on ‘indent achievement m the Junior Secondary School level (JSS) business studies.
- Most teacher do not evaluate their student learning adequate or if they do the evaluation instrument are the most appropriate as a result they do not yield adequate and relevant information
- Teacher themselves and student can use to improve instrument and
- The significant of periodic testing to the student’s achievement
- The contribution of periodic testing towards judging the merit or worth of a teacher experience.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The central focus of this research is to examine the effect of periodic testing on student’s achievement in junior secondary school level. Attention is focused on the following research question.
- Will there be a significant difference between the performances of the two groups in business studies?
- Will the teaching method of the teacher affect the performance of the students in business studies?
- Will the sex of the students affect their performance in business
- Will there be a significant impact between the use of instrumental
materials and the student performance in business studies?
- Will the socio-economic background of the parent affect the students in business studies?
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to access the effect of the periodic testing on students achievement in junior secondary school business studies.
The study is to find out to what extent are the students performing. It will discuss about the failure of students in vocational subject and to testing periodic evaluation is a factor that can improve student performance and what could be done to improve students performance.
With the introduction of continuous assessment in most school in
Ogun State, there is need to build up a battery of test item in every subject. The research therefore is an attempt to meet the challenge posed by continuous assessment and thereby make a contribution to the bank of test item that may be needed to access student achievement in business studies
- The effect of periodic testing on students achievement, whose item are of technical faults and demand high cognitive behaviour
- To contribute to the effect of building of test-item bank that will be
used in the process of continuous assessment.
- To enable the teacher to know about performance of the students at one level and another for improvement purposes. Through the
introduction of evaluation effectiveness on methods and material
applied in teaching be well known, which help the teacher effectively.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study only focused on junior secondary school (JSS) in Ijebu Ode North East Local Government Urban and Rural area.
The test item are based on three units namely office practice, commerce, book-keeping and account of the business studies syllabus junior secondary school II (JSS). Typewriting and shorthand topics could not covered because most school in the state do not offer them because of high financial requirement to procure equipment. Business studies is considered a knowledge that is indispensable to the educated man. The subject is concerned with individual in the society, hence it is not surprising that many students offer it in school it entails the day to day activities of buying and selling, producer and consumer, payee or receiver, buyer and sellers, female and male, young or old and all concerned with business studies. The main objective of this curriculum is to present business studies as a subject that has relevant to everyday life. Thus, attempt has been made to integrate the theoretical foundation of the subject with its practical application.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACHIEVEMENT TEST: It is a test used to measure in assess of determining the end product of learning or what a person has learn to do
PERIODIC TEST: This test is designed to permit a series of intermittent probes to be taken over a course or a given period of time
ASSESSMENT: It is conscious procedure and process employed in obtaining and interpreting information about the knowledge ability, performance, interest and attitudes, of a person so as to make decision about the individuals.
CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT: It refers to process of investigating the status of an individual or group, usually with reference to expected outcomes.
6-3-3-4 SYSTEM OF’EDUCATION: This implies six years of direction at primary level, 3 years junior secondary school while another 3 years in senior secondary school and another 4 years at high school of learning. This system was introduces by National Policy 011 Education.
JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL (JSS): In the first tiers of the six years secondary school system
TEST: A series of exercises or question designed to measure a students skill intelligence, achievement, aptitude, ability, and knowledge.
UNIT: A unit could be a topic a chapter in a book or a well-stated content portion of a course, office practice, commerce and bookkeeping and account are unit of business studies
EVALUATION: It is the process of obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision or alternative
TRIAL TEST: This is the method of using the marking scheme to mark some sampled script or test administered for the purpose of item analysis before the final form is considered.
FINAL TEST: A modified version of the trial test, which is to be administered.
SUB-TEST: A portion of the whole test containing items, which is to be testing one particular aspect of learning.
POST TEST: It is the modified version of the pre-test, which is to be administered.
PRE-TEST: This is a test administered for the purpose of item analysis before the final is considered. Also to familiar with previous knowledge of the students.