UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATES OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS: (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)
In this research, it is assumed that unemployment is a factor inherent in the nation’s economic system, first because intentionally or unintentionally the policy-makers do not deliberately resort to measures capable of reducing unemployment to acceptable level. This research is concerned with wages and means of denitrifying the causes and measures of curbing the problem created by unemployment. To do this, this research will specifically investigate the incidence if unemployment among graduates of institution of higher learning in Enugu State and to determine what factors are responsible for or that affect unemployment. The researcher distributed (200) two hundred questionnaires to the respondent and collected (170) one hundred and seventy. Data were collected from unemployed graduates the data extracted from the questionnaire from the validation of research hypothesis were subjected to chi-square test statistics. And at the end of the research work, some possible recommendation where made like, establishment of more industries should be provided in order to absorb our unemployed graduates and conclusion were made in order to tackle the problems of unemployment amongst the graduates of higher institution in Enugu State.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This chapter provides a broad overview of the employment situation in graduate s which is a major concern of government and their social partner throughout the region. Theapproach is rather general and highlights major issues concerning employment problems and prospects in the region. Because of data limitation, it does not attempt a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the employment situation. it brings with an examination of the employment problems, including background information on its origin and trends, and then looks at the nature and underlying causes of contemporary unemployment. Unemployment of a large portion of the labor force is a central problem now in almost all the underdeveloped countries.
The phenomenon of chronic unemployment has become the major concern of successive Nigerian government. The phenomenon of joblessness creates much concern for the individual Nigerians. According to the 1966 – 67 manpower surveys in Nigeria, the proportion of the labour force in Nigeria not working is 1 – 7 percent, which means that nearly two of every one hundred member of the potential labor are unemployed.
Unemployment has thus reached such an alarming situation today that is perhaps considered the most serious of the problem affecting Nigeria and one that is steadily worsening as the gap between the rapid rising member pressing for work and the new employment opportunities being created widens.
In the underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria however employment benefits are not available to the unemployed. the income level of the great majority of families makes the provision of unemployment benefits virtually impossible thus those unable to find jobs or these discharged from their previous employments re left to fend for themselves. in underdeveloped countries majority of job seekers are therefore forced to create employment for themselves particularly in the rural agricultural sectors where they force disguised unemployment. in the context of this study both those who are disguised unemployment. in the context of this study both those who are disguisedly unemployed and those who are openly unemployed are lumped together as the unemployed.
thus unemployment is define briefly as the negative aspect of the economic process for an unemployed person is one who despite his willingness and capacity to work is unable to do so for reasons inherent in the organization of the commodity production.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Unemployment rates are particularly high among graduate and especially among school leaves, giving rise increasingly to the problems of “educated unemployment”. paradoxically, graduate unemployment seems to be correlated with levels of education attained in some cases. This is particularly true for school leavers in, for example, Nigeria where the proportion of the unemployed with secondary education increased from 24 to 51 percent between 1974 and 1985. graduate employment rates are probably 3 – 4 times higher than those of older workers, and in many countries in the region open unemployment among graduate as a group in the labour could be as 40 – 50 percent.
Moreover, graduate s and new entrants to the labour force are as well placed as experienced workers to find employment in new opportunities or to go into self employment. The problems of graduate unemployment reflect the contraction of jobs in the modern sector and declining rate of job creation in that sector. It also suggests serious labour market distortions related to the development and utilization of human resources in the context of changing economic circumstances. further, the problem of graduate unemployment is linked to the fact of many African countries, as already noted, continue to record relatively high rates of population growth, and the population structure of some of those countries is overwhelmingly young will children of school going age accounting for as much as half of the total population in some cases.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Unemployment has become a current and a current universal problem in Nigeria. The impact presently has been felt by 80% of Nigeria’s families. The efforts of our government to curb it are inadequate or misdirected, so positive results are not yet in sight.
Unemployment has brought hardship and object poverty to many families. The level of adult dependency has increased, so the rate of saving in our economy is declining. The problem has also led to increase in crime waves and rates. All these could spell doom for the nation. It is deemed fit to embark on this study as a contribution towards the eradication of the problems of unemployment and its accompanying problems and hardship to the individual and in general.
Our primary motive of carrying out this study were born of the desire to contribute in any meaningful way the idea of how the glowing rate of unemployment in Nigeria can be dealt with in order to reduce its social and other consequences especially on our leaders of tomorrow to at least a minimum.
The roles of government to assist people see the need of solving their numerous problems of which unemployment is an integral part. As Graduates generally regarded, as catalyst of national development are no longer assumed of job security and reliable source of livelihood. We see this as warming signal, showing that danger is looming and if nothing is done to arrest the situation; it may spell out a disaster which nobody in this country can afford to avoid.
1.4 RESEARCH /QUESTIONS/ HYPOTHESES IN THE (SYSTEM)
The data and information that will be used in conducting this research study will include both primary and secondary data which involves personal observation, book, journals, company, documents, internet downloads and a number of others white ups and presentations which are relevant to this study.
Personal interview will also be carried out with entrepreneurs manage and finance personal in addition to issue questionnaires.
The method of data analysis to a adopted and used in this research study will used of statistical tools which are the simple percentage alongside the chi – square tests.
This research study is not an exception to hypothesis formulation and testing. The researcher intends to formulate and test the research hypothesis as follows.
The stress to obtain the necessary information requiredfro this research work has been given rise to the following hypothesis.
Ho: The current Educational system is not serving our societal need.
Hi;The current educational system is not serving our societal need
Ho: What means could the graduates unemployment be eradicated.
H1: There is no means graduates unemployment be eradicated
Ho: The government address itself to the problems of graduate unemployment galore?
Hi;The government has not address itself to the problems of graduate unemployment galore
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The case study or area where the problem has more impact in view of the problems created by unemployment in Enugu state despite government conscious efforts to create employment opportunities in the country, the interest on this problem is to determine through facts and figure the level of, and trend in unemployment in the country with the view to making lasting policy, recommendations that will ameliorate the problem of unemployment.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitation of the study is in Enugu so anything that explains unemployment outside this area will be irrelevant and useless.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is in Enugu and it touches on the various unemployment problems, forms of unemployment. Unemployment has been one of the most persisted and unmanageable problems facing all industrial countries of the world. If not handled adequately, it will not be eliminated. The underlying causes of the serious employment problem in Nigeria are linked both to supply – side factors, which determines the demand for laborthrough the influence on main economic and labor market trends.
On the supply side, apart from population growth, salient characteristics of the labor force such as educational and skill level and mobility of labor can influence the level and distribution of employment, on the demand side the capacity of Nigeria economy to absorb labor into productive employment is influenced mainly by the rate and pattern of economic growth as well as by the structure and efficiency of production.
Unemployment may actually be higher among women than men in Nigeria. although this is lately depicted in recorded statistics many women in the country are officially outside the labor force i.e. house wives and are not actively seeking work, but it is likely that because of the need to augment household income many of these women would in fact take a job opportunities if these were available. The participation and unemployment rates of women in the labor force in Nigeria do not as such include the large reserve of women whose unemployed” status is concealed and not included in official statistics.