ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY. (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BREWERY PLC, AMAEKE, NGWO, ENUGU, ENUGU STATE)
The topic of this research is Analysis of the Impact of Effective Communication in Increasing Organizational Productivity. A case study of the Nigerian Breweries Plc, Amaeke, Ngwo, Enugu, Enugu State. The researcher used survey design for the study. The population of the study was eight hundred and ninety-nine (899) employee of the company, with sample size of one hundred and thirty-three (133). The researcher used both the primary and secondary sources of data in the course of the study. The primary data were collected through the instrument of questionnaire and observation. The secondary data were collected from text books, journals, magazine, newspapers, and libraries. The research finding revealed that communication breakdown has effect in the management of an organization which results in low productivity. The researcher recommended among other management should continue to keep in touch with the workers on new development in the organization.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication is very important to the existence of human organization. The environment in which organization operate today is complex and comprises physical, cultural psychosocial, economics, legal, political, technical and other characteristics.
It is in this environment that all organization must operate their business. They must among other analysis the character of economics and social problem and acknowledge that their policies are adopted and administered in a political system where concentration of power and self-interest has to be tacked.
In addition, good communication network in the form of postal and telecommunication has been interpreted by various meaning. Some regard it as message itself. Some feel it is the channel along which the message is passed while other term it as the cut off message, passing communication can therefore be rightly defined as the process by which information is passed between individual or organization by means of a previously agreed method (either verbal or written). In everyday life one seeks information from or passes information to them. This communication can be verbal (face to face or telephone). Written (letter, memos, reports etc) or mechanical (seconding original documents instead of transmitting the message in them). The most vital means of receiving or sending information is oral communication.
Osiegbu (1983:40) said that the factors that contribute to failure in implementation of organizational objectives include lack of clarity of purpose and failure in understanding of objective policies and tasks at any level by any group or individual. Failure in communication or perception clashes of interest of value, gap between anticipated and actual event, degree of flexibility and capacity of organization to respond to the unexpected all those by no means are possible constraints to organizational intention but the major concern here is the breakdown in management function due to no communication. In other word how “effective communication improves managerial performance”.
Communication function is the means by which organized activity is unified. The means by which social input are fed into the social systems or organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, change is effected, information is made productive and goals are achieved, be it business, the military, the government and so on.
In a similar form, communication relates to exchange of facts, opinion or emotions by two or more persons in an organization. It could be word, letters, symbols or messages in a way that one-organization member shares meaning and understanding with another. On the other hand management is the managing of a complex system of men, machine, money and the physical structure whose effective coordination is necessary in the production of a product or service that have economic value to the society. The practice of management also rest to a large extent on the role or part which individuals and groups in the organization play and of course the way their activities are harmonized.
Human beings are essentially crucial for the development growth and success of any organization for it is the human beings that get things done. The practice of management involve taking charge and streamlining the activities of organization member to ensure that as far as possible desired objective are active.
The activities are carried out by human being (personnel) and physical factors involve the equipment, tools and other material factors used to aid the achievement of the desired objective.
Effective organization performance is realized when all persons and resources are synchronized, balanced and given direction whether managerial job is accounting, selling, designing, engineering, the manager’s effectiveness depends on his ability to listen and to read, or his ability to speak or write. He needs skill in his thinking across to other people as well as skill on finding and what other people are after.
This implies that communication is needed to convey information necessary for the ongoing operation, and that it can have effect on the attitudes of people on the organization. Therefore communication is essential for both internal and external functioning of the enterprises because it integrates the managerial function. It needs internally, include to develop plans for their achievement, to organize resource in the most effective and efficient way to select develop and appraise members of the organization to lead, direct, motivate and create climate in which people want to contribute and to control performance. It needs externally include, on the other hand the following first and foremost. It is through information exchange that the managers become aware of the needs of customer, aware of the availability of supplies, the claims of stockholder, the regulation of government and the concerns of the community.
In this way, the manager is aware of his opportunities and threats on his surrounding environment and therefore knows his does and don’t e.g he then knows whether to recruit staff or not, other managerial decision.
The importance of communication cannot be over-emphasized. It can be compared to the blood that runs through the veins and arteries of human body because the function of integration, maintained, orientation, decision making and the growth of organization member are performed through it.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The environmental of managing may differ between large and small business, between business and other kinds of organized enterprises and between differing cultures in areas of economic and social development.
The researcher therefore believes that managerial functions are basically the same but at various degree of performance. The researcher wants to examine how effective communication holds the key to improved managerial performance. Individuals with little or no qualifications find themselves holding managerial positions in a company. This lack of a competence leads to wrong decision making especially when subordinates are not consulted.
Organizations also have some complicated chain of command, difficult and most times the chain of command is not strictly adhered to, the company as such have overlapping authorities and responsibilities as subordinates become accountable to more than one superior.
Also most companies lack intra-communication facilities like intercoms and memos. This leads to ignorance on the part of the subordinate, about the aim and the objective of the company as well as the standard expected of them.
This could lead to liaises-faire attitude to work, which is harmful to the growth and progress of the company. As a result of all the above problems discussed, the researcher intends to help such companies by elaborating on how effective communication can improve their performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
(1) To describe the communication system in an organization.
(2) To develop a model of the communication process.
(3) To explain how communication improves managerial performance.
(4) To identify barriers and breakdowns in the communication system.
(5) To suggest approaches and techniques to improve the communication system.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. To what extent do communication increase the quality of employee’s performance?
2. What degree do communication increase productivity?
3. How can an organization get the best of managerial performance?
4. How can communication increase the rate of turnover?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
From the study of this research, it is understood that management performance, by executing the four managerial function can be improved through effective communications thereby aiding the organization achieve its goal.
This study would aid students, managers in the making and managing of organization. It would aid students studying management to understand the theoretical background on how information is very vital to efficiency.
The study would enable them to start off well when establishing or when heading an enterprise and its organization structure. As regards those who are already managers, the study would help them to achieve their goal if they have not or to improve on their performance or they are just on the average.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is a known fact that researchers encounter a lot of problem, which are inherent in our society and this research is no exception.
This problem will range from personal constraints to environmental problems.
Time for instance will be a constraints. A lot of time will be consumed before this research could be carried out. The researcher has to forfeit a lot of appointment, assignments, and other commitments especially during the collection of information that will be used for the literature review.
Lack of statistic will be another major set back to this research. It will be due to the impossibility of obtaining some accurate information required. It should be noted that lack of accurate statistic limits accuracy of any research work. They seriously guided most information considered confidential to the organization.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher has a wide coverage in mind, which include organization of all sort such as academic institution as well as profitable organization. For this research, the researcher would limit the scope to one of the leading brewing industry in this country, Nigerian Brewery Plc, Amaeke, Ngwo, Enugu, Enugu State.
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CHIZEA B.I. (1984) Managerial Effectiveness NIGERIAN BUSINESS TIME, July 25.
OSIEGBU P. (1983) Effective Communication as a Tool in Supervision Management in Nigeria 19(2) Feb.