IMPORTANCE OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) AND NCHUANWU (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) IN HUMAN BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

Approval

Acknowledgement

Dedication

Table of contents

List of table abstract

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Aim and objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Reviews

Origin of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Uses of gongronema latifoliumandocimum gratissmum.

Production and international trade (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Description of utazi and Nchuanwu

Growth and development of Utazi and Nchuanwu

Propagation and planting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Harvesting (utazi and Nchuanwu).

Handling after harvest (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Genetic resources and breeding (utazi and Nchuanwu)

Proximate and minerqal omposition of Utazi

Amino Acid composition of utazi

fatty acid composition of Utazi

Anti bacterial activity of utazi

Prospect of Utazi

Prospect of Nchuanwu

CHAPTER TWO

Materials and methods

Sample collection and preparation.

Determination of vitamin A (Utazi and Nchuanwu).

Materials

Preparation of reagent

Isopropanol in the both sample (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

Determination of vitamin C (Utazi and Nchuanwu)

MATERIALS

Preparation of Reagent

Indophenols solution titration in the both sample.

CHAPTER FOUR

Results

Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendation

Appendix

Reference

ABSTRACT

The research work was focused on the possible vitamin composition of Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) and Nchuanwu (Ocimum gratissimum) leaf juice. Here, it was only the vitamin A and C that were scientifically tested for. Where upon, it was discovered that Utazi had 1.14mg/ml of vitamin A and 34:61mg1 100m1 of vitamin C, while Nchuanwu had 2.14mg/ml of vitamin A and 30.76mg1 100m1 of vitamin C. From the result gotten, it shows that Utazi and Nchanwu are good sources of vitamin A and C, with high industrial and medicinal prospects.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.0.1  Utazi (Gongronema latifolium/ Bush buck), leaf vegetable and belong to the group of plants known as spices. It is of the family of ASCLEPIADACEAE genus GONGRONEMA and species of LATIFOLIUM, and the vernacular name is BUSH BUCK while the botanical name GONGRONEMA lATIFOLIUM. Utazi is a climber with woody hollow glabrous stems below and characterized by greenish yellow flowers (Okolo 1987).

Gongronema latifolium, commonly called ‘utazi’ by the Igbo’s, the efik / ibibio people in South-eastern Nigeria call the leave ‘utasi’ and the Yoruba people ‘arokeke’ or ‘madumaro’ (Ugochukwu and Babady, 2002). In Ghana, the akan-asantes knows it as ‘kurutu nsurogya’. The server in Senegal call it ‘gasub’ while the kissis, mende and temne in sierra leone call it ‘ndondo-polyole, ‘tawa bembe’ and ‘ra-bilong’ respectively (Dalziel et at, 1961). They are sharp bitter and sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable and as a spice for sauce, soups and salad (Okolo 1987, Anaso and Onochie 1999). Utazi is used in small quantity in preparing soups like Nsala soup, ugba sauce, and yam and also in garnishing dish like Abacha, Ncha, Isi Ewu, Nkwobi etc. The leaves are used to spice locally brewed beer. In Sierra Leone the pliable stems are used as chew sticks. The bark contains much latex and has been tested for exploitation (Morebise et al., 2002).

Reports by various authors showed that it essential oils, saponins and pregnanes among others (Schneider et al; 1993, More Bise and Fafunso 1998, morebise et al; 202). The plant has been widely used in folk medicine for maintaining healthy blood glucose level (Okafor 1987, 1989). The plant leaves have been found very efficacious as an antidiarrheal, and antitussive (Sofowora 1982, Iwu, 1993).

1.0.2  Nchuanwu (ocimum gratissimum / clove Basil), leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plant known as spices. It is of family of LAMIACEAE genus OCIMUM and species O.GRATISSIMUM and the vernacular name is CLOVE BASIL while the botanical name OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM. Nchuanwu is widely distributed in the tropics of Africa and Asia. It is a perennial plant that is woody at the base. It has average height of 1-3m high. The leaves are broad and narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime-green fuzzy leaves (Wagner et al; 1999).

In Southern part of Nigeria, the plant is called “effinrin-nia” by the Yoruba,”Nchuanwu” in Igbo, while in the Southern part of Nigeria, the Hausa call it “Daidoya”. (Effraim et al; 2002).

Nutritional importance of this plant centers on it’s usefulness as a seasoning because of its aromatic flavor (C.N. Ezekwesili et at; 2004).

Nchuanwu in folk medicine, ocimum gratissimum is extensively used throughout West Africa as a febrifuge, anti-malaria and anti-convulsant. The leaf juice is used in the treatment of stomach pain and catarrh. Oil from leaves have been found to posses antiseptics, anti-bacterial and antifungal activities (Ezekwesile et al; 2004).

In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy (Osifo, 1992) high fever (Oliver 1980) and diarrhea (Oliver 1980 and Sofowora 1993). While in the savannah areas decoctions of the leaves are used to treat mental illness (Abdulrahman, 1992).

Nchuanwu is used by the Ibos of Southern Nigeria in the management of the baby cord. It is believed to keep the baby’s cord and wound surface sterile. It is used in the treatment of fungal infections, fever, cold and catarrh (Iwu, 1986).

They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macro nutrients, micro nutrients and vitamins.

Due to their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor 2008).

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project work is to determine the vitamin composition of Utazi and Nchuanwu leaf juice (vitamin A and C).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  

ORIGIN OF UTAZI (GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM) Bush Buck and Nchuanwu (ocimumaratissimum/clove Basil)

2.1.1  Utazi (Gongronema latifolium), are leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plants knowns as spices. It is of the family of ASCLEPIADACEAE gends GONGRONEMA and species of LATIFOLIUM and the vernacular name is BushBuck while the botanical name is GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM. Utazi is a climber with woody hollow glabrous stems below, and characterized by greenish flowers (Okolo, 1987). The leafy vegetable can be propagated by seed or softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings. Fresh seed have a germination rate of up to 85% at 25 to 290c. Cold storage for a brief period improves seed germination. The common name for gongronema latifolium is amaranth globe. It is widespread in tropical Africa and can be found from Senegal east to chad and south to congo. It occurs in rainforest, deciduous and secondary forests and also in mangrove and disturbed roadside forest, from sea level up to 900m altitude (chattopadhyay, 1999). Gongronema latifolium, commonly called “utazi by the Igbos, the efik / Ibibio people in South-eastern Nigeria call the leave ‘utasi’ and the Yoruba people ‘are okeke” or ‘madumarov’ (Ugochukwu and Babady, 2002). In Ghana, the akan-asantes know it as kurutu nsurogya.

The serers in Senegal call it ‘gasub’, while the kissis, mende and temnes in sierra leone call it ‘ndondo-polyole, tawa bemba and ‘ra-bilong’ respectively (Dalziel et al 19**** Reports by various authors showed that it contains essential oils, saponins and prechanes among others (Schneider et al 1993, More Bise and fafunso, 1998, Morebise etal 2002). (Ugochukwu and Babady 2003), Ugochukwu et al; (2003)reported that aqueous and ethanolic gongronema latifolium extracts had hypoglycemic hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties while more bise et al (2002) showed that it has anti-inflammatory properties.

Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) they belong to the class of agricultural food product often referred to as perishables. Their common features is that they are abundant during the peak of their respective season but there after, become quite scarce (Onoja et al; 2012). The fare well cherished spices especially in sub-Saharan Africa. They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macronutrients, micronutrients and vitamins. Due to the their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore, to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor 2008).

2.1.2  Nchuanwu (Ocimum Gratissimum) are leafy vegetable and belong to the group of plant knowns as spices. It is of family of LAMIACEAE gends OCIMUM and species O. GRATISSIMUM and the vernacular name C. LOVE BASIL while the botanical name is OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM. Nchuanwu is widely distributed I the tropics of Africa and Asia it is a perennial plant that is woody at the base. It has an average height o 1-3m high. The leaves are broad and narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime green fuzzy leaves (Wagner et al, 1999).

In Southern part of Nigeria, the plant is called “efinrin-nia” by the Yoruba, “Nchunawu” in Igbo, while in the Southern part of Nigeria the Hausa call it “Daidoya”. (effraim K.D et al; 2001). Ocimum gratissimum is a small shrub commonly known as “scent leaf”, “tea bush” or “fever plant”.

In West Africa, Ocimum Gratissimum is commonly found around village huts and gardens and cultivated for medicinal and culinary purpose and also have aromatic odour.

PLANT CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom plantae      –        Plant

Subkingdom Tracheobionta –        Vascular plant

Superdivision spermatophyta       –        Seed plant

Division magnoliophyta            –        Flowering plant

Class magnoliopsida             –        Dicotyledon

Subclass Asteridae

Order lamiales

Family Lamiaceae                  –        Mint family

Gends Ocimum L.                   –        Basil

Specie ocimum gratissimum L – Africa (plant classification culled from: USDA 2008) Ocimum gratissimum belong to the class of agricultural food products often referred as perishable. Their common feature is that they are abundant during the peak of their respective season but therefore, become quite scarce (Onoja et al; 2012). They are cherished spices especially in sub-Saharan Africa. They play quite significant role in our diets of the population because they are major sources of essential macronutrient, micronutrients and vitamins. Due to their seasonal nature and high moisture content, there is need therefore, to develop an appropriate technology for their preservation so as to guarantee their availability all year round (Eze and Chibuzor, 2008).

Photochemical evaluation of this plant has shown that it is rich in alkaloid, tannis, phytates, flavonoids and oligosaccharides. It has tolerable cyanogenic content (Ijeh et al 2004).

The volatile aromatic oil from the leave consists mainly of thymol (32-65%) and eugenol, it also contains xanthones, terpenes and lactones (C.N Ezekwesili et al; 2004).

Characterization of its ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of non-cyclic sesquiterpenes, phenols (Esvan Zhuga 1986).

2.2 USES OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM

2.2.1  Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) they are sharp bitter and sweet and widely used as a leafy vegetable and as a spice for sauces, soups and salad (Okolo, 1987, Anaso and Onochie, 1999). Utazi is used in small quantity in preparing soups like Nsala soup, Ugba sauce, yam and also in garnishing dish like Abacha, Ncha, isi ewu, Nkwobi etc. the leaves are used to spice locally brewed beer. In sierra leone the pliable stem are used as chew sticks.

In folk medicine the plant utazi is used for maintaining healthy blood glucose label (Okafor 1987, 1989). Utazi plant leaves have been found very efficacious a an anti-diarrhoea and antitussive (Sofowora 1982, Iwu 1993).

2.2.2  Nchuanwu (ocimum gratissimum) in Nutritional importance of this planta centers on it’s usefulness as a seasoning because of its aromatic flavor.

(C.N. Ezekwesili et al; 2004). In folk medicine ocimum gratissimum is extensively used throughout West Africa as a febrifuge, antimalarial and anti-convulsant. The crushed leaf juice is used in treatment of convulsion, stomach pain and catarrh-oil from the leaves have been found to posses antiseptics, antibacterial and antifungal activities. (C.N. Ezekwesili et al; 2004). In the coastal area of Nigeria, the plant is used in the treatment of epilepsy, (Osifo 1992) high fever (Oliver, 1980) and diarrhea (Oliver 1980 and Sofowora, 1993). While in the savannah areas decoctions of leaves are used to treat mental illness (Abdulrahman 1992). Ocimum gratissimum is used by the Ibos of Southern Nigeria in the management of the baby’s cord. It is believed to keep the baby’s cord and wound surface sterile. It is used in the treatment of fungal infections, fever, cold, catarrh (Iwu 198**).

2.3    

PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE (UTAZI AND NCHUANWU)

2.3.1  The leaves of Gongronema latifolium are sold locally in conted’ woire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon.

2.3.2  Ocimum gralissimum, they are widely distributed in the tropics of Africa and Asia.

2.4     DESCRIPTION OF UTAZI & NCHUANWU

2.4.1  Gongronema latifolium, climbing shrub or liana up to 5m long, stems hollow, all parts soft-hairy to glabrous, with woody base and fleshy roots, containing latex. Leaves opposite, simple and entire, stipules absent, petiole up to 2.5-3cm long, blade broadly ovate to almost circular, 6-12cm x 3 -10cm base deeply cordate, apex acuminate papery, at basis 3-veined. Inflorescence a terminal and axillary cymose panicle up to 13cm long. Flowers bisexual, small, 5-merous, regular, yellow-green, fragrant pedicel 2-4mm long, calyx lobes elliptic to rounded, c.2mm long, hairy at apex, corolla tubular up to 5mm long, campanulate at apex, hairy inside or not, lobes triangular-ovate, c.2mm long, spreading, corona lobes fleshly, cream, brown at base, shorter than stamina column, stamens with short appendages, resting on the short, conical style apex. Fruit a pair of pendent follicles, each one narrowly cylindrical 7-10cm x1 -1.5cm yellow, many seeded.

2.4.2  OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM: It is a perennial plant that is woody at narrowly ovate, usually 5-13cm long and 3-9cm wide. It is a scented shrub with lime-green fuzzy leaves. It has an average height of 1-3m high.

2.5    

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (UTAZI & NCHUANWU)

2.5.1  In Nigeria Gongronema latifolium flowers in July and August. Application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) did not cause any significant increase of glycoside in the leaves. And Gongronema latifolium comprise about 16 species in Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia and oceania, 5 species formerly described in marsdenia, occur in tropical Africa.

2.5.2  Ocimum gratissimum, in West Africa are commonly found around village huts and gardens.

2.6    

PROPAGATION AND PLANTING (UTAZI & NCHUANWU)

2.6.1  Gongronema latifolium can be protonated by seed or softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood cutting. Fresh seeds have a germination rate of up to 859 o at 25-290C cold storage for brief period improve seed germination seeds from green-yellow follicles are mature enough to germinate, and can be stored for a longer period than seeds from yellow follicles softwood stem cuttings have a better shoot and root development during the wet season, whereas semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings perform better during the dry season.

2.6.2  Ocimum gratissimum, they are easy to grow and thrive in warm temperatures which has enhanced their popularity over the last 200 years. Scented geraniums can grow just about any where and they thrive in temperature between 65 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. These plant need 4-5 hours of direct sunlight each day, be it through a window or sitting out in the yard. Scented geraniums cannot survive temperature below 50 degrees fahrenheit and when cultivating in cold region the plant should be brought indoors. Geraniums grow well in slightly acidic soil with adequate drainage.

2.7    

Harvesting (Utazi & Nchuanwu)

The leaves of Gongronema latifolium are harvested when needed. While the leaves of ocimum gratissimum are harvested when needed.

2.7.1 

Handling after Harvest (Utazi & Nchuanwu)

The harvest leaves of Gongronema latifolium are used fresh or washed, destabilized**** dried, milled in provider and packed for further uses. While the harvest leaves of ocimum gratissimum are used fresh and washed.

2.7.2 

Genetic resources and Breeding (Utazi & Nchuanwu)

Gongronema latifolium is widespread and common in tropical Africa. However, in Nigeria it is overexploited and has become relatively rare. While ocimum gratissimum is widespread and common in tropical Africa.

2.8    

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Utazi

The proximate and mineral composition of dry milled a latifolium leaves is presented in table 1. Results show the following percent dry matter (0% Dm) composition for G.latifolium crude protein 27.2, lipid extract 6.07, ash 11.6, crude fiber 10.8 and NFE 44.3 potassium is the dominant mineral (332mg/kg) and combat (116mg/kg) were comparable. Chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and lead were not detected in the leaves.

2.9     AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF UTAZI

The amino acid composition of G.latifolium is presented in table, table 22 and compared with the WHO (1980) idea amino acid in table 3.3. Noteworthy in the amino acid profile of G. latifolium is the presence of high amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and glycine (13.89o, 11.990*** and 10.3% total respectively). The dominant essential and nonessential amino acids in G.latifolium are leucine, valine, phenylalanine and aspartic acid glutamic acid glycine respectively. The proportion of essential to nonessential amino acid is 41.1% to 58.9%. The pattern of amino acid in G.latifolium leaves is comparable with WHO (1985) standard with respect to several amino acid (Table 3.3)

2.10  

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF UTAZI

The fatty acid profile of G.latifolium leaf oil is shown in table, table 4.4 result showed that G. latifolium leaf oil is composed of 50.2% (21.2mg.100mg) saturated fatty acids (SFA), 10.4% (4.39MG / 100MG) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 39.4% (16.6mg/100mg) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The predominant SFA in G.latifolium leaf oil in palmitic acid (C 16:10) which make up 36% of total fatty acid (TFA) and 76.27% of SFA. Oleic acid (C18:1ng***) the major MUFA in G. latifolium leaf oil is 7.13% of TFA and 53.3% of MUFA. The PUFA: SFA ratio of G. latifolium leaf oil is 1.11 about 76.9% of the PUFA of G. latifolium leaf oil can be attributed to the presence of oleic, linoleic and x-linoleic acid.

2.11 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF UTAZI

The zone of growth inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and 70% methanol extract of G. latifolium extracts on the test organism is shown in table, table 5.5 Results showed that the extracts show no activity against E. faecalis, Y. enterocolitica, E. aerogenes, B. cereus and E. agglomerans methanol extracts show activity against S.aureus, S.aureus subsp aureus, L.monocytogenes, S.enteritidis S.choleraesuis s typhimurium and p.aeruginosa.the highest activity observed was against s.enteritidis, s.choleraesuis s typhimurium and p.aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1mg plant extract and zone of growth inhibition 7,6.5 and 7mm respectively. when 5mg methanol extract was used against these organisms (data not shown), the zones of growth inhibition were 17,8 and 22mm respectively. at this level of methanol extract usage, activity was low compared to the control (ampicillin) which had 30 and 27mm zone of growth inhibition against s.enteritidis and s.choleraesuis. aqueous extracts showed activity against E.Coli (Mic 5mg) and p.aeruginosa (Mic1mg) only with p.aeruginosa, the most susceptible***** of the two.

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