1.1    Background of the Study

The choice of agricultural land used has for some times, been a focus of many research efforts by researchers

Most of Nigerian rural populations are, including geographers, ecologists and economists. In crop agriculture in particular, the emphasis is on the distribution of the crops, soil type and the types of other rural economy that will enhance man’s livelihood. farmers who engage in the cultivation of various crops for their livelihood. However, the production of these crops depends largely on natural and human factors such as climate, soil, topography agricultural inputs and political factors.

Agriculture is a vital base for the existence of any society in the world and also one of the major sectors of the Nigerian economy which generates about 50% of the National Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Crop production is paramount

where a greater number of people are self employed to ensure a food situation that will feed the increasing population of the area. Besides most manufacturing industries use agricultural products (agro-base).

Food production is obviously one of the most important human activities. The history of agriculture which also includes agricultural tools dates back to perhaps between 7,000 and 4,000 B.C.2  It is difficult and sometimes misleading to point out a single origin of agriculture because at different times and in different places many plants and animals have been domesticated depending on the climate, taste of the people and availability of such species in a given area. Thus, each society has its independent history of plant and animal domestication.

Generally speaking, the domestication of plants and animals started during the Neolithic period. The earliest form of agriculture involved the use of crude tools of stones and wood and most of the crops and animals domesticated were found around Man.3 With the migration of people from one region to the other, there was the diffusion of agricultural practices and ideas among various societies.

The domestication of plants and animals is one of the most important breakthroughs in the history of man because it had and still has some far reaching consequences on his way of life. Man, who was initially a hunter-gatherer, abandon such life and took to sedentism (settling down in one place) after mastering the seasons and careful selection of plants and animal species. Domestication guaranteed a steady supply and  man concentrated on production which surplus was generated. The existence of a surplus made it possible for man to store for future use and partly for exchange. Surplus also enabled man to have plenty of leisure times to be involved in other economic pursuits such as manufacturing (handicrafts), trading and the invention of new ideas to ease his problems.

Thus, as the physical and mental ability of man developed so also did he apply these to various activities including agriculture. In most African societies in general, and in Mwaghavul land in particular, the system of traditional agriculture adopted by farmers, have always been able to produce an adequate food supply. Mass famines have been very rare, except for pest attacks and bad farming seasons.

sugar cane now one of the major grass plant produced for consumption which also serves as a source of raw material in sugar manufacturing industries in many parts of West Africa, most importantly it is a source of sustainable clean energy that is free from pollutants. In Mwaghavul Land in particular, the south western part of the Local Government, Sugarcane is an important crop apart from maize (zea mays), Soybeans (glycine max), Sweet potato (ipomea batatas), Cocoyam and others. Sugarcane, a tall perennial grass is a specie and hybrid that belong to the family of gramineae. It is indigenous to tropical South and Southeast Asia. Around the eighth Century AD, Arab traders introduced sugarcane from south Asia to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, and Andalusia and into the riverine areas of West Africa like Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Ghana and Liberia. They are grown in swamps in northern Nigeria around Kano Bida, Zaria and Sokoto.

Irish potato, which was first domesticated in the region of modern day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia between 8000 and 5000 BC has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries it is believed that it entered Africa with the coming of the colonialist who consumed it as vegetable rather than as staple starch. It was first grown mostly at the Canary Islands.

In Mwaghavul land, Kerang, Ampang West and Mangun districts of Mangu,  Irish potatoes was grown for early missionary consumption. Latter it was grown for commercial purposes. With improved varieties it was wide spread on the central and southern plateau

1.2    Aims and Objectives of the Study

The paramount aim of this study is to;

i. To state the economic and agricultural values of these crops over the pre-existing traditional tuber crops.

ii. To see the changing nature and challenges between the production of traditional food crops and the introduction of other cash crops such as sugarcane, Irish potato, cocoyam etc.

iii. To see whether or not these new crops have added to food security in Mwaghavul land.

iv. The objective of this study is to identify the challenges faced by the introduction of these crops.

v. To identify how farmers cope with the cultivation and adaptation of the new crops.

vi. To state the progress made and new production methods,

a. Marketability and storage.

1.3    Statement of the Problem

Every researchable topic has a “problem”. According to meekya, the research problem is an academic perplexing question posted for solution.

Therefore, the problems associated with this study include;

A. Search to know the economic value of the production of sugarcane, Irish  potatoes e.t.c in Mwaghavul land.

To identify reasons for their wide acceptance by farmers over other traditional tubers or food crops such as (millet, small cocoyam, and others as did mentioned.

A. To identify the varieties introduced and their adaptability in the region.

B. Search to know when these crops were introduced, to identify the extent of which they have been resistant to pest and diseases. To identify the type of fertilizer and nutrients suitable for cultivation of the crops.

 1.4    Significance and Justifications of the Study

For a long time, historians and agriculturalist have concentrated their attention on tracing; the origins, distribution and impact of such crops as Maize, Plantain, Banana, Oil palm, Kola, Cotton, Tobacco, Groundnut in Nigeria; The jos plateau and Mwaghavul land in particular given lesser or no attention to sugarcane and Irish potatoe farming as well as in other food and cash crops.

The few that carried out research on agricultural crop production include; Goshit Z.D (2000), Lohor S.A (1994), Chandighis, K.M (2009), Jallo P.J.(2008), and Nwanan Istifanus (2006).There is therefore, the need to study the introduction of these crops following the increase changes in the production of both crops (Sugarcane and Irish potato). Crop production, though not a new area of scholarship but the centrality of the production of these crops makes the study compelling.

The research apart from analyzing the attitude of the people towards the new crops production, it also highlight the measures taken by the farmers during colonial and the post-colonial cultivation of their food crops to transforming crops production in Mwaghavul land. The study is important because it reveals how and why the production of new crops gain wide acceptance and has become leading crops in Mwaghavul land compare to the traditional crops. This can be seen by the numbers of traders coming from other parts of plateau and Nigeria to buy them and also by the local developments that has accrue as a result of the production of these crops.

Though most of the production is done by the peasants using local technology, there is an increasing need for government to assist them with modern farm inputs to enhance much better yields. This can help to solve the problem of food insecurity in Mwaghavul land, Plateau and Nigeria.

1.5      Scope and Limitation of the Study

This research covers the period from 1850-2014 that is to say from pre-colonial to post-colonial periods.

Secondly, the research focuses largely on the production of sugarcane and Irish potatoe and their economic value over other traditional crops in Mwaghavul land.

Thirdly, this dissertation concerns itself with the factors which made this production visible in Mwaghavul land.

Most importantly, the research is limited to Mwaghavul land which has nine districts namely, Mangu, Panyam, Pushit, Kereng, Ampang West, Mangun, Mangu Halle, Chakfem and Jipal out of which none is lacking in the production of these crops but at different levels.

1.6   The Geography of the Study Area

Mwaghavul land and chiefdom is located in the south-eastern escarpment of Jos, and covers a land area of about 295 square kilometres. It is about 70 kilometres south-east of Jos town, the state capital of Plateau state, and it is bounded in the North by Barkin Ladi LGA (Berom land), in the South East by Pankshin Local Government Area. To the East by Gindiri, Pyem Chiefdom and to the South and West by Qua’an Pan and Bokkos Local Government Areas respectively. The land also covers an area of about 64 square kilometers from Kantoma to Chakfem (north to south) and from Tileng-Mpat to Kombun (east to west) is a distance of about 44 square kilometers.

The population of the area has been on the increase over the years. According to the population census of 1934, Mwaghavul people in Mwaghavul land numbered 20,265 and rose to 59,625 in 1963 and the population is pegged at 2341,103 according to the 2006 population census.

The land is drained by a network of streams and rivers from neighbouring and upland communities from tributary rivers. Its major streams are Dunglaar (Mangu Helle) and Dung jurang (Mangu), which are before Mangu town when coming from Jos. The third is Dung Rim (Daika) between Mangu town and Daika, Dung Ndai between Daika and  Dung Pungak at kerang, Dung Shangkwahal and Dung Kisak at Kopsho (Ampang West), and Dung Yi Naat (Panyam).

Spring waters are found at Niyes and Lankasta, (Panyam) and amshal at Konji (Kerang), this produces SWAN water which is sold nationwide. These spring all year round and support the irrigation of crops such as Irish potatoes and sugar cane as well as other vegetables. The Ampidong, a crater lake located at Ampang West and has been attracting national and international geographers and tourists, supplies Boone agriculturalist with the needed water as well as the Mufil Irish plantation  in Ampang West at mostly dry season.

The original vegetation of the land was largely Guinea Savannah due to the human activities, it has been replaced with secondary vegetations. The primary vegetations were tall grasses and trees such as Twaas, Khir, Pichom. The secondary vegetations were planted by individuals and government agricultural agencies like the forest along Mangu-Panyam road at Ndai. The trees include eucalyptus, mango, and guava to mention a few.

1.7    Method of Data Collection

This research work depends on various sources of history. These sources can be broadly classified into primary, secondary and tertiary sources. The primary sources include oral interviews which involves interviews conducted at random with the people of the study area, especially adults whose occupation is crop production and whose ages range from forty years and above and are currently residing in the area. Others include agricultural officials and business men whom are involved in the sale of these crops.

Other relevant primary sources are archival materials. Many Nigerian states have National Archives that house different forms of raw data considered to be of valuable importance to historians. These include official documents such as annual reports, statistical surveys, population census report of colonial and post-colonial periods, especially the ones that concerns the topic of this research have been consulted.

The secondary sources are materials already existing on issues related to the topic. These include works of historians, economists, geographers, and scientist and agriculturalists among others, hence the reliance on multidisciplinary approach. These materials can be found in national and state libraries as well as libraries of school and colleges and universities in Nigeria.

1.8      Definition Of Concepts

This is rather a broad topic to be tackled than examining just some parochial questions. Thus, the research work is titled “The Production of Sugarcane and Irish Potato and Other Traditional Tuber Crops in Mwaghavul Land, Challenges and prospects (1850-1970). To really get an insight into what it is all about, a clear definition of key concepts like production, Sugarcane, Irish potato, traditional, Tuber crop, Mwaghavul land challenge and prospects is paramount.

i. Production; The encyclopedia Britannica volume 1, 15th  edition; Defines Production as the relationship between the amount of output produced and the quantities of the inputs such as labour and capital used. The underlying assumption is that producers seek to maximize the output that can be obtained from given quantities of inputs by choosing the most efficient methods of production available.

Also the chambers 21st Century Dictionary Revised Edition 1996; defines Production as the act or process of producing something. It can be a series of activities carried out in sequence as part of a manufacturing process that will field a lot or become more fruitful.

ii. Crop; A plant, especially a cereal, grown to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or fuel or for any other economic purpose. Usually for a specific year.

iii. Thomas F.  Described Sugarcane as a large coarse grass with shoots (culms) reaching height up to 6m. Having sold shoots weight. The dark sticky sugar initially extracted from the culms consists of sucrose, glucose and small amount of protein, minerals, organic and peptic gum ash and pigments.

iv. Irish potato is an edible tuber from solanum tuberosum plant, which is actually native to South America not Ireland. Irish potato are named after Ireland because they are closely associated with the Irish potato famine, caused by mould infestation of the Irish potato crop or white potato to creamy white fresh boiled, fried or roasted or turn into potato salad.

v. Mwaghavul language. It is among the Afro Asiatic languages spoken on the Jos plateau and it belongs to the Chadic sub-family as indicated by Lohor et al (2011). It is located in the south-eastern escarpment of Jos, and covered a land area of about 295 square kilometers.

vi. Challenge is defined as a new or difficult task that tests somebody’s ability and skill.

vii. Prospect: the possibility that something will happen. Both terms have been defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 6th Edition.

viii. Traditional as to crop according to the encyclopedia 15th edition refers to those communicated from ancestors to descendants without writing, but as traditional opinion.