The Influence of Extra Mural Classes on Student Academic Performance in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State
This project investigated the influence of Extra mural Classes on student Academic performance in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. The cardinal purpose of this project was to find out the influence of extramural classes on students’ Academic performance, and to ascertain if the purpose of introducing extra mural classes into the educational system has been achieved. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, a self designed Teacher Questionnaire on the project title was used to gather information from teachers. The systematic random sampling technique was used to collect data of fifty teachers from ten Junior Secondary Schools in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State. The responses gathered from the teachers were analysed using chi-square analysis to examine the influence of extramural classes on students Academic performances. From the findings, it was discovered that students who attend extramural classes, are well engaged, and make good use of their extra time. This exercise help permanent learning, which is reflected in their Academic performance in School.
1.1 Background to the study
Education is seen as a tool of transformation. It is also a process of transformation. According to the website Dictionary, education is the act or process of educating as determined by the knowledge, skill or discipline of character acquired, also the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study. Patti (2009) also defined education as an act or process of impacting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the power of reasoning and judgment and generally of developing ones self or others intellectually for mature life. Education or being educated, involves all senses being exposed to a series of stimulate which will enhance and grow the mental activity of someone, to active a set of, or a specific objective (Akualtines 2001).
The National of policy on Education (NPE 2004) also defined Education as an instrument “par excellent” for effecting national development. In pursuance of goals of making education a tool of national development, the government came up with the following national goal.
A free and democratic society;
A just and egalitarian society;
A great and dynamic society;
A land full of bright opportunity for all;
The aims and objectives of education are to instill the basic and necessary discipline, value, skill, and attitude to all facilities of the individuals, that is, to produce an individual who is honest, skilled, respective, co-operative and confound to the society ‘s norm and ethics of the day (NPE 2004).
The importance of education is recognized by all educational, professional, political, non-political and religious associations, organization and groups at various levels in their memorandum, letters, and brochures.
The aims and objectives of education are the following:
- Individual Development: the developments of an individual physically, mentally and spiritually. Developing physical and mental faculties.
- Developing child’s character, personality and culture.
- Social norms and national development: Developing a sense of national identity, unity and patriotism.
- Social Transformation: Education is aim at not only adjusting an individual in the society but also to bring about desirable changes in the society.
- Acquisition of value.
In attempt to achieve these educational goals and objectives, the governments and policy makers designated some subjects at the junior secondary level (JSS) to lower some aspect of learning experience that can help to achieve National goals of Education. Some of the important subjects were considered to be core subject. One of such subjects is social studies (2004 edition of NPE).
Social studies as a field of study according to fageyinbo 2000 is a study that deals with man and various possible interaction between him and his environment and the possible outcomes from such, which make him to understand, interpret, manipulate, and adjust within, with or to such environment.
The National council for social studies (2009) further defined social studies as the integrated study of the social science and humanities to promote civic competence. According to the National Curriculum Conference on social studies (NCCS) social studies provides co- ordinates, systematic study, drawing upon discipline such as anthropology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion and sociology as well as appropriate content from the humanity in mathematics, and natural science. The primary purpose of social studies at the junior secondary school level is to the help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decision for the public good as citizens of culturally diverse, and democratic society in an interdependent world.
The National Curriculum Conference (1969) enunciated the following aims of social studies in Nigeria schools.
- To help student identify how Nigeria became a nation, and the need to continue to build a nation and
- To help students understand and appreciate democracy including the duties of a citizen to democratic.
- To help students acquire a sense of Social responsibility that recognize one’s worth and the dignity and worth of others.
The wide field coverage and electric nature of Social Studies (Fageyinbo 2004), the decline in the standard of Education, the politization of education, the consistent government policies to mention a few, because hindrances to achieving all these stated aims and objectives of education and Social Studies (Ogunro 2009).
In striving to revive the falling standard of education, several efforts were made by the government, schools, parents and other state holders which include training and re-training of Social Studies teachers, equipping school library with Social Studies text books, production and constant review of Social Studies text books, however, persistence poor academic performance in Social Studies, is an indication that these efforts did not make desired impact. Further attempts to improve the situation include the use of extramural classes.
Extramural classes according to the Webster Dictionary are outside usual study courses/subjects outside or additional to the usual courses/subjects at a University, College, other educational institution (including School), though usually connected with them. They are also educational activities that took place outside the walls or boundaries of the school., though usually connected with them. They are also educational activities that took place outside the walls or boundaries of the school.
Extramural classes could be inform of after school hours classes, private home classes, outside school lesson or even break time lesson (usually arranged by the parents (s) of the child (ren) with the teachers).
One notable features of the Nigeria education system that began way back, extramural classes hand gradually grows, along side the mainstream education, where students attend or more strictly speaking, need to attend, extramural classes with the belief to acquire knowledge that they do not appear to obtain during their hours in schools. These extramural have became widespread in Nigeria, especially in urban areas.
Extramural classes or private tutoring as popularly known is not an issue peculiar to only Nigeria as a developing country, it is s widespread issue can be found in almost all countries in the world as observed by Bray and Kwok (2003).
Several reasons have been given for the continuous existence and growth of extramural classes. Firstly, it is considered as some form of supplementary education. As such, it can satisfy the needs of the students as is often the case in most developing countries (Glewwe and Kremer 2005). In such countries, extramural classes canprovide the knowledge that students cannot obtain at school, or can strengthen what they learn briefly in class. In most cases this knowledge is needed by students to pass competitive examination conducted by different state government and National Examination Council (NECO). Secondly, extramural classes can also be considered to be a form of corruption, which is more serious than some deficiencies in education system, which can easily corrected. This can happen in some developing countries with weak monitoring system in place, where the teachers can barely survive on their salaries, and they have to resort in asking their students to attend extramural classes (organized by them with collaboration with the school authority) to supplement their monthly income (Biswal 1999).
Thirdly, cultural factors can be an important source of encouragement to the growth, and development of extramural classes. Since extramural classes can be used as supplementary education, and can be bought, the rich may have more access to high quality of education than the poor.
Despite the nature and widespread of extramural classes, there have been very few studies carried out to look into the causes of extramural classes and fewer studies to actually find out the level of impact extramural classes is having on students’ academic performance, especially at the Junior Secondary School level and in Social Studies. This research is aimed at finding out if these goals have been achieved and if not, what are the likely causes and solution to the situation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many people are of the opinion that students who attend extramural classes perform academically better than student who do not attend extramural classes. This assertion calls for investigation, to actually find out whether extramural classes influence academic performance of students in Social Studies positively.
1.3 Purpose of the Research
This research study aims at:
- Finding out which group perform better academically: students who attend extramural classes or students who do not attend extramural classes.
- Finding out if extramural classes have any positive influence on students academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
To carry out this research study, the following questions need to be answered.
- Do students who attend extramural classes perform better than those who do not attend extramural classes?
- Do students who attend extramural classes perform better more excellently than their counterparts who do not attend extramural classes?
- Is extramural classes a ticket to better performance?
1.5 Research hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant difference in performance of students who attend extramural classes and those who not.
H02: Students who attend extramural classes do not cope better in classroom activities than their counterpart.
H03: Extramural classes are only useful for preparation for professional examination.
1.6 Significant of the Study
This study would help the government to know if the goals of the NPE have been achieved.
The study would also help the government to know what steps to take if the goals are not being achieved.
The study will expose the difficulties encountered in achieving or not achieving the set goals.
1.7 Limitation/Scope of the Study
Although this study is wide in range, it will be limited to some selected Junior Secondary Schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government of Ogun State.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined:
Extramural classes: It is an additional or outside usual study at a university, college, and other institutions of learning.
Students: A person who is studying at a college, university.
Academic performance: The level of knowledge attained or skills developed in the school subject as a test score, or marks assigned by teachers. It is also the level of success attained.
Social Studies: It is the study that deals with man and various interactive between him and his environment and the outcomes from such, which makes him to understands, interpret such environment.