The causes of the prevalence of teenage pregnancy among secondary female students in Ijebu-ode local government, Ogun state

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION.

The word Teenage refers to both male and female between the ages thirteen and nineteen (13-19years). Under the American social norm, such teenagers are not regarded as matured. Although physiologically, they look like adults and so they engage in acts of sexual intercourse with members of opposite sex. This behavior poses a great challenge to health services, since sex at this tender age exposes them to a lot of risks, such as teenage pregnancy.

This was informed by Awake (1990) when the publisher put forward that moral decadence among our youths is assuming alarming proportion in Nigeria today, day after day, month after month and year after year, crime rates are mounting by leaps and bound.

Teenage pregnancy has become serious public health problem particularly in the developing countries and researches that have been conducted have shown that it has been on the increase. Research conducted also shows that teenage pregnancy poses health problem in developed countries like America.

Corry and Cray (1997) supported the notion that schools should teach health education and in addition identify the current problems such as sexual transmitted diseases, which is usually followed by pregnancy among teenagers. The role of school and home towards sex education has been a controversial issue. Mooney (1975) and Fakunle (1986) have conducted a research holding that teenagers learn about sex from peer and literature and much of the information so obtained is inadequate and inaccurate. (Oladapo and Akintayo 1991). Sex is glamorized in books, televisions and movies. This places greater responsibilities on young persons to maintain a standard of conduct that will give greatest happiness both now and in the future. The standard of conduct required by adolescent is better started at home. Turner 1979.

Mooney (1975) writing on schools, responsibilities of both school and parents opined that parent’s primary role is to set behavior limits for their own children. Fakunle (1986) further asserted that in the early stages of personality development must be encouraged at home particularly sexual knowledge knowing how they function and sexual changes fully enjoyed. Marjorie (1979) and Thomas (1979) points out that teenage pregnancy and the inherent abortion are not without their social effects. It is uncommon in some societies to attach a terrible stigma to girls who are pregnant or have probably committed abortions, such girls and their families are usually the talk of the town by the society, the girls are sometimes ridiculed, characterized and insulted by people around them and comrades at schools, teachers do not look at them with favor, nearly one million of these adolescents age 15-19years becomes pregnant in United State yearly and a20,000 pregnancy occur out of wedlock and are unintended.

According to Barbana (1988), Adolescence is by definition on unstable time during which teenagers need structure as well as the opportunity to become more independent are given responsibilities and challenges to face, they need the ability to imagine their futures and skills to set reasonable goals for their personal growth.

Teenage pregnancy is technical defined as occurring when women under the age of twenty become pregnant, although in the United States, the term usually refers to girls younger than 18 of age. During both physical and medical concerns, problem of teenage pregnancy and child bearing arise from individual, familiar and social factors, these include but are not limited to culture, religion, cultural value and belief, law, education, economic circumstances, lack of support structures such as finding access health care, contraception and other resources and mental and emotional well being condom (2002).

Data supporting teem pregnancy as a social issues in developed countries include lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty and other poorer ‘life outcomes’ in children of teenage mother.

Teenage pregnancy in developed countries are usually outside of marriage and for this reason, it carries a social stigma in many communities and countries. Some teenage pregnancies in developed countries are usually outside of marriage and for this reason it carries a social stigma in many communities and countries. Some teenage pregnancy occurs as a result of young women’s sexual in experience and an inadequate understanding of their reproductive matters and access to contraception are necessary to prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and childbearing. Not all teenagers’ pregnancies are unplanned, however a survey of 589 pregnant western Australian Adolescents (12-17) reported that 17% started that they planned to (Corkindale, 2002).

Adolescents of information and access informational services have been compounded by government restriction and social hypocritical disapproval of adolescent sexuality and contraceptive use. There is a wish to prevent sexual intercourse from taking place among young unmarried adolescents with consequent moral structural segregation of boys and girls, the threat of punishment if found on the other hand, there is a wish to prevent the consequences such as the spread of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies and emotional trauma, within intercourse does take place. The prize is the provision of effective, safe and adolescent friendly sexual health information and services census. (Corkindale 2002)

1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Teenage pregnancy is on the increase at an alarming rate among female students in Nigeria, which has generated a lot of concern to most individuals, families and the society. It is also one of the serious social health problems which is gradually gaining ground and spreading which is now in the whole wide world.

Studies had shown that teenagers are bound to have its share on this health problem. Therefore, the need for this study is to investigate into the causes and prevalence of teenage pregnancy among secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode. This will help in a great deal to expose these students to information that deal to expose these students to information that will in turn enable them to make informed decisions about their social health.

1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research shall attempt to find answers to the following questions.

  1. Will lack of the health counseling be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among secondary school female students in Ijebu ode?
  2. Will lack of mass media be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female student in Ijebu Ode?
  3. Will altitude of parents be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode?
  4. Will broken home or divorce be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode?
  5. Will lack of sex education be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode?
  6. Will peer pressure be the cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode? 

1.4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis will therefore be tested:

  • Lack of health counseling will not be a significant cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode.
  • Mass media will not be a significant cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode.
  • Attitude of parents will not be a significant cause of the prevalence of teenage pregnancy among secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode.
  • Broken homes or divorce will not be a significant cause of prevalence of teenage pregnancy among the secondary school female students in Ijebu-Ode. 

1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

This study will provide useful information to parents on how to educate their children and solve their sexual health and reproductive problems. Furthermore, the health counselor may acquire sufficient factual information’s in establishing meaningful information with teenage clients and the community in order to reduce teenage pregnancies in secondary schools.

The study may serve has a spring for future similar research efforts.

1.6. DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work would focus mainly on five (5) secondary schools in Ijebu-ode, Ogun State. The secondary schools include:

  • Adeola Odutola secondary school.
  • Anglican Girls Grammar school, Ijebu-Ode
  • Our Lady of Apostles secondary school.
  • Muslim College Ijebu-Ode.
  • Tai Solarin Staff School, Ijebu-Ode.

1.7. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following limitations might be encountered in the study;

  1. Failure to return all completed questionnaires.
  2. Irregular completion of the questionnaire which might lead to rejection.

All these limitations will be taken care of by ensuring that sufficient numbers of questionnaires are ready for analysis.

1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS

  • Adolescence: – this is a period of life beginning with the appearance of secondary sex characteristic and terminating with the cessation of somatic growth roughly from 11 to 19 years of age.
  • Teenager: – age of 13 to 19 years.
  • Puberty: – adolescence age when secondary sex characteristics, that is breast, public hair develops.
  • Teenage pregnancy: – when teenager becomes pregnant.

REFERENCES

➢ Akintayo eta’l (1991) Prospective Cohort study of the impact of domestic violence on teenage pregnancy. J. Paed Adol Gynecol 2000,14,(1) 17-23

➢ Corkindale O.A (2002) Sexually, A family Adolescents Development Task: Implication for sex Education. Nigerian.

➢ Condom W. S. (2002) Sex Education in France.

➢ Fakunle. F. (1987), primary or secondary prevention of Adolescent pregnancies. Journal of Nigeria school health 41.

➢ Ehinmoro, F. (1981), The Place of Sex Education in Schools in Contemporary Nigeria. Nigerian School Health Journal 3, 5-10

➢ Jekel, J.F. (1987), Primary or Secondary Prevention of Adolescents Pregnancies. Journal of Nigerian School Health. 41, 21-23.

➢ Mooney (1975), the place of sex Education in schools in a contemporary Nigerian. School health journal (3), 5-10

➢ Marjorie and Thomas (1979) Fundamental of Public and community Health Education.

➢ Moronkola, O.A. (1995) Sexually, A Family Adolescents Development Task: Implication for Sex Education. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counseling psychology (NJCCP) 4, 99-109.

➢ Moronkola, A.O. & Okanlawon, F.A. (2003) Fundamental of Public and Community Health Education. 2, 66-68

➢ Nass, G.D, Libby, R. Fisher, M.P. (1981) Sexual Choices Monetary: Wadsworth Science Division.

➢ Osuala, C. (1993); Your Personal Medical and Sexual Problems Know your health Benin City: Ilupeju Press Ltd. 499-501, 513-518.

➢ Otti, P.N. (1985): Population Education Monograph 3 Nigeria: NERDC Lagos, Shurrefs J.I.I. and Thomas I.P. (1979) Adolescent Perception of Sex Education Needs. Journal of Nigerian School Health. 6, 36-39.

➢ J. P. Adol and Gynecol (2000) prospective Cohort Study of the impact of domestic violence on teenage pregnancy. 14, 1, 17-23.

➢ Teenage pregnancies: Trends and Consequences (current) 2002, 43 (3) 25-31.

➢ Turner E. H. (1979) Prospective Cohort Study of the Impact of Domestic Violence on Teenage Pregnancy. J. Pead Publishers, New York

➢ Udoh, C.O (1981): The place of sex education in post secondary institution in Nigeria. Nigerian School Health Journal 3, 64-68.

➢ Umukoro, J.O. (1997): Parents supreme Duty and the society. A book of inspiration and guidance bringing up and Developing Children Lagos –Nigeria, Joja press Ltd.

➢ WHO, (1998): Health Risk of Adolescents Sexual Activities.

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